IMPACT OF CHILDREN’S ORPHANHOOD ON MANAGEMENT OF SCHOOL DISCIPLINE IN PUBLIC PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN URANGA DIVISION, SIAYA COUNTY, KENYA

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The purpose of this study was to establish the impact of children’s orphanhood on the
management of school discipline in public primary schools in Siaya District. The objectives of
the study were: to establish the impact of lack of parental guidance among orphaned children on
the management of school discipline,   examine how  basic needs (food, shelter and clothes)
impacts on children’s orphan hood on the  management of School discipline among the orphaned
children, determine the impact of peer pressure on  the management of school discipline among
the orphaned children, and to assess the impact of coping behavior on the management of school
discipline among orphaned children. The study was based on the Maslow’s hierarchical theory of
needs.
The study used the descriptive survey design to gather both qualitative and quantitative data. The
target population for this study consisted of 36 public primary schools, 36 headteachers, 650
teachers and 13,702 pupils of which 1620 are orphans. The sample was selected using stratified
random sampling of 20 percent of all primary schools in the district. Purposively, one
headteacher, 7 teachers and 10 pupils were selected from each of the sampled schools. The
sample therefore consisted of 20 headteachers 140 teachers and 200 pupils.   
The research instruments that were used in this study included questionnaires which had
structured, closed – ended and open ended questions, they achieved a return rate of 99%. The
researcher used SPSS to analyze data using descriptive statistics to generate frequencies   and
percentages.
Study findings show that lack of parental guidance affected the orphans in schools implying that
orphanhood was an issue that required special attention in schools as Orphans were affected by a
number of issues including high dropout rate, absenteeism, malnutrition, low self esteem and
lack of confidence.  Orphans lacked food, clothes, beddings, shoes, shelter, water, and uniforms.
Orphanhood had not been stigmatized in schools in the district however a number of the orphans
were subjected to mistreatment in schools. Orphans  succumb to peer-pressure and get into
alcoholism, petty crimes, pre-marital sex, early pregnancy, drug abuse, child labor, earlier
marriages, prostitution, smoking and theft. There are very few children’s homes with inadequate
facilities to take care of the needs of the orphans.
 
Based on this findings, the researcher, therefore,  recommends that the government should set
aside funds for orphans for the provision of basic facilities needed in schools, That headteachers
should establish types of requirements  for orphaned children in schools and mobilize school
communities to support them, That the government considers introducing adequate children’s
homes in the district, That the Ministry of Education introduces Guidance and Counseling
departments in all primary schools in the district. That the Ministry of Education introduces
School Feeding Programmes in schools in the district.  
Given the objective scope and limitation of the study, the study suggested that a national wide
survey be conducted on impact of children’s orphanhood on the management of school discipline
thereby establishing a policy on dealing with orphanhood in schools, That study be conducted on
the effects of orphanhood on pupils’ academic performance in the district, that a replica of this

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